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Effect of intravenous fentanyl on cough reflex and quality of endotracheal intubation in cats

Published:January 19, 2023DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2023.01.002

      Abstract

      Objective

      To assess the effects of intravenous (IV) fentanyl on cough reflex and quality of endotracheal intubation (ETI) in cats.

      Study design

      Randomized, blinded, negative controlled clinical trial.

      Animals

      A total of 30 client-owned cats undergoing general anaesthesia for diagnostic or surgical procedures.

      Methods

      Cats were sedated with dexmedetomidine (2 μg kg-1 IV) and 5 minutes later either fentanyl (3 μg kg-1, group F) or saline (group C) was administered IV. After alfaxalone (1.5 mg kg-1 IV) administration and 2% lidocaine application to the larynx, ETI was attempted. If unsuccessful, alfaxalone (1 mg kg-1 IV) was administered and ETI re-attempted. This process was repeated until successful ETI. Sedation scores, the total number of ETI attempts, cough reflex, laryngeal response, and quality of ETI were scored. Post-induction apnoea was recorded. Heart rate (HR) was continuously recorded and oscillometric arterial blood pressure (ABP) was measured every minute. Changes (Δ) in HR and ABP between pre-intubation and intubation were calculated. Groups were compared using univariate analysis. Statistical significance was set as p < 0.05.

      Results

      The median and 95% Confidence Interval alfaxalone dose was 1.5 (1.5-1.5) and 2.5 (1.5-2.5) mg kg-1 in group F and C, respectively (p = 0.001). The cough reflex was 2.10 (1.10-4.41) times more likely to occur in group C. The overall quality of ETI was superior in group F (p = 0.001), with lower laryngeal response to ETI (p < 0.0001) and ETI attempts (p = 0.045). No differences in HR, ABP and PIA were found.

      Conclusions

      and clinical relevance: In cats sedated with dexmedetomidine, fentanyl could be considered to reduce the alfaxalone induction dose, the cough reflex, and the laryngeal response to ETI and to improve the overall quality of ETI.

      Keywords

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