Evaluation of transpulmonary ultrasound dilution cardiac output in piglets: accuracy, precision and trending ability with room temperature injectate

Published:November 25, 2022DOI:



      Transpulmonary ultrasound dilution (TPUD) is a minimally invasive technique to measure cardiac output (CO) using a 1 mL kg–1 isotonic 37 °C saline injectate indicator. The objective was to evaluate the performance of TPUD using a room temperature saline injectate.

      Study design

      Prospective experimental trial.


      A total of seven anesthetized male Yorkshire piglets.


      Piglets aged 1 month and weighing 7.7–9.0 kg were anesthetized with detomidine–ketamine–hydromorphone–isoflurane and a pulmonary artery flow probe (PAFP) placed via a median sternotomy. The thoracic cavity remained open during measurement of CO by PAFP and TPUD. The TPUD indicators of 1 mL kg–1 0.9% saline at 37 °C and 20 °C were compared during infusions of phenylephrine and dobutamine, blood withdrawal and replacement. Bias, limits of agreement (LoAs) and percentage error (PE) between each iteration of PAFP and TPUD were measured with Bland–Altman plots. Trending ability via concordance, angular bias and radial LoA were compared.


      Bland–Altman plots showed negligible bias with varying LoAs. PEs of 22% and 38% were found for 37 °C and 20 °C saline injectates, respectively. In the four-quadrant plots, the concordance rate was 94% and 100% for measurements obtained with 37 °C and 20 °C saline injectates, respectively. Angular bias for both were < ±5 °, with radial LoA < ±7 °.


      TPUD was accurate when using 1 mL kg–1 of isotonic saline at 37 °C in a range of CO within 0.2–0.8 L minute–1, and it reliably tracked positive and negative changes in CO. Room temperature (20 °C) indicator was less accurate but equally able to track direction of changes in CO.

      Clinical relevance

      The use of room temperature injectates allows an easy, readily available clinical application of TPUD CO monitoring while preserving the trending ability of the monitor.


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