Advertisement

Evaluation of lidocaine for brachial plexus blockade in eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina)

Published:November 12, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2022.11.003

      Abstract

      Objective

      To evaluate latency and duration of a brachial plexus block technique in eastern box turtles performed with 2% lidocaine at three dose rates.

      Study design

      Prospective, randomized, blinded crossover study.

      Animals

      Adult eastern box turtles, two for drug dose evaluation and a group of six (three male, three female) weighing 432 ± 40 g (mean ± standard deviation) for the main study.

      Methods

      Animals were randomly assigned to four brachial plexus blocks with lidocaine at 5, 10 and 20 mg kg–1 or 0.9% saline (treatments LID5, LID10, LID20 and CON, respectively), separated by 1 week. Treatment side was randomized and blocks were performed unilaterally. Baseline observations of mentation, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (fR), skin temperature and limb response to manipulation or toe pinch were evaluated. Assessments were made every 10 minutes until 1 hour of normal sensory and motor function to the treated thoracic limb, or for a total of 2 hours if no block was evident.

      Results

      Motor and sensory blockade was achieved in treatments LID10 and LID20 in one turtle, with a latency of 10 minutes and duration of 50 minutes for both doses. Raising of the ipsilateral lower palpebra occurred with both blocks. Turtles administered lidocaine experienced higher HR compared with CON, and HR decreased over time for all individuals. Mentation and fR were not changed with any lidocaine dose.

      Conclusions

      The technique was unreliable in producing brachial plexus motor and sensory blockade at the lidocaine doses evaluated in this study. HR was higher in lidocaine-administered turtles but remained within normal limits for the species. No change in mentation or fR was observed among treatments.

      Clinical relevance

      General anesthesia with systemic analgesia is recommended for surgical procedures involving the chelonian thoracic limb. Further studies are needed to optimize a brachial plexus block in this species.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Campoy L.
        • Bezuidenhout A.J.
        • Gleed R.D.
        • et al.
        Ultrasound-guided approach for axillary brachial plexus, femoral nerve, and sciatic nerve blocks in dogs.
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2010; 37: 144-153
        • Cerreta A.J.
        • Lewbart G.A.
        • Diaz R.
        • et al.
        Methods of body temperature assessment in Chelonoidis chathamensis (San Cristobal Galapagos Tortoise).
        Herpetol Rev. 2018; 49: 696-697
        • Ferreira T.H.
        • Mans C.
        • Di Girolamo N.
        Evaluation of the sedative and physiologic effects of intramuscular lidocaine in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) sedated with alfaxalone.
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2019; 46: 496-500
        • Grubb T.
        • Lobprise H.
        Local and regional anaesthesia in dogs and cats: overview of concepts and drugs (part 1).
        Vet Med Sci. 2020; 6: 209-217
        • Kull K.
        • Baer G.A.
        • Samarütel J.
        • et al.
        Distribution of local anesthetic solution in retromediastinal block: preliminary experimental results.
        Reg Anesth Pain Med. 1997; 22: 308-312
        • LaChance M.K.
        • Fitzgerald G.
        • Lair S.
        • Desmarchelier M.R.
        Horner syndrome in birds of prey.
        J Avian Med Surg. 2019; 33: 381-387
        • Mans C.
        Clinical technique: intrathecal drug administration in turtles and tortoises.
        J Exot Pet Med. 2014; 23: 67-70
        • Mones A.B.
        • Gorges M.A.
        • Santangelo S.M.
        • et al.
        Feasibility of a blind perineural injection technique for brachial plexus blockade in eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina): a cadaver study.
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2021; 48: 789-797
        • Sladky K.K.
        • Mans C.
        Clinical anesthesia in reptiles.
        J Exot Pet Med. 2012; 21: 17-31
        • Viscasillas J.
        • Sanchis-Mora S.
        • Hoy C.
        • Alibhai H.
        Transient Horner′s syndrome after paravertebral brachial plexus blockade in a dog.
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2013; 40: 104-106