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Evaluation of four cardiac output measurement techniques during a modified passive leg raise maneuver in anesthetized dogs

      Introduction: Modified passive leg raise maneuver (PLRM) is a successful volumetric predictor of fluid responsiveness in dogs during experimental induction and correction of hypovolemia using invasive pulmonary artery thermodilution (PACTD) for measuring cardiac output (CO). In this study, other CO methods, minimally-invasive esophageal Doppler (ESD), transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), arterial pressure waveform analysis (APW), noninvasive electrical velocimetry (EV), were investigated during PLRM in anesthetized dogs.
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