Advertisement

Influence of anaesthetics on aqueous tear production in dogs: a systematic review

  • Petr Raušer
    Correspondence
    Correspondence: Petr Raušer, Department of Surgery and Orthopedics, Small Animal Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Veterinary Sciences Brno, Palackého tř. 1946/1, 612 42 Brno, Czech Republic.
    Affiliations
    Department of Surgery and Orthopedics, Small Animal Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Veterinary Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic
    Search for articles by this author
  • Lukáš Novák
    Affiliations
    Department of Surgery and Orthopedics, Small Animal Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Veterinary Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic
    Search for articles by this author
  • Markéta Mrázová
    Affiliations
    Department of Surgery and Orthopedics, Small Animal Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Veterinary Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic
    Search for articles by this author
Published:August 23, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2022.08.007

      Abstract

      Objective

      The aim of this systematic review is to summarize outcomes of studies focused on the effects of opioids, injectable sedative and anaesthetic drugs and inhalant anaesthetics on tear production in dogs. This manuscript complements the systematic review describing the effect of anaesthetics on intraocular pressure in dogs (
      • Pierce-Tomlin T.
      • Shaughnessy M.R.
      • Hofmeister E.H.
      A systematic review of the effects of injectable sedative and anesthetic drugs and inhalant anesthetics on intraocular pressure in the dog.
      ).
      Databases used A detailed search of scientific references has been performed. PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct and Google Scholar databases were used to search for sources using free text terms ‘Dog’ or ‘Canine’, ‘Anaesthesia’ or ‘Anaesthetic’ or ‘Sedative’ or ‘Opioid’ or the name of used opioids, sedative and anaesthetic drugs and ‘Tear’ or ‘Schirmer’ or ‘Lacrimation’. The time frame searched was from 1960 to October 2021. Any published manuscripts that were concerned with sedative or anaesthetic drugs administered systemically in the dog and tear production were evaluated.

      Conclusions

      Low doses of α2-adrenoceptor agonists, neuroleptics, benzodiazepines, opioids, propofol or alfaxalone administered alone have no clinically significant effect on aqueous tear production in healthy dogs measured by the Schirmer tear test I (STT-I). Intramuscular injection of ketamine increases STT-I values. Higher doses of α2-adrenoceptor agonists and combinations of anaesthetics, including inhaled anaesthetics, always clinically significantly decrease tear production.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Abdelhakiem M.A.H.
        • Elmeligy E.
        • Al-Lethie A.A.
        Effect of xylazine HCl and/or ketamine HCl on the tear production in clinically healthy dogs.
        Adv Anim Vet Sci. 2019; 7: 1015-1020
        • Acosta M.C.
        • Peral A.
        • Luna C.
        • et al.
        Tear secretion induced by selective stimulation of corneal and conjunctival sensory nerve fibers.
        Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004; 45: 2333-2336
        • Aghababaei A.
        • Ronagh A.
        • Mosallanejad B.
        • Baniadam A.
        Effects of medetomidine, dexmedetomidine and their combination with acepromazine on the intraocular pressure (IOP), tear secretion and pupil diameter in dogs.
        Vet Med Sci. 2021; 7: 1090-1095
        • Berry S.H.
        Injectable anesthetics.
        in: Grimm K.A. Lamont L.A. Tranquilli W.J. Lumb & Jones’ Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. 5th edn. Wiley Blackwell, USA2015: 277-296
        • Biricik H.S.
        • Ceylan C.
        • Sakar M.
        Effects of pethidine and fentanyl on tear production in dogs.
        Vet Rec. 2004; 155: 564-565
        • Chandler J.A.
        • Van der Woerdt A.
        • Prittie J.E.
        • Chang L.
        Preliminary evaluation of tear production in dogs hospitalized in an intensive care unit.
        J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2013; 23: 274-279
        • Costa D.
        • Leiva M.
        • Moll X.
        • et al.
        Alfaxalone versus propofol in dogs: a randomised trial to assess effects on peri-induction tear production, intraocular pressure and globe position.
        Vet Rec. 2015; 176: 73
        • Cullen C.L.
        • Lim C.
        • Sykes J.
        Tear film breakup times in young healthy cats before and after anesthesia.
        Vet Ophthalmol. 2005; 8: 159-165
        • Davidson H.J.
        • Kuonen V.J.
        The tear film and ocular mucins.
        Vet Ophthalmol. 2004; 7: 71-77
        • de Sousa Pontes K.C.
        • Borges A.P.B.
        • Eleotério R.B.
        • et al.
        A comparison of the effects of propofol and thiopental on tear production in dogs.
        Rev Ceres Viçosa. 2010; 57: 757-761
        • Di Pietro S.
        • Giannetto C.
        • Falcone A.
        • et al.
        Dexmedetomidine and tear production: Evaluation in dogs as spontaneous model for ocular surface disorders.
        Vet Sci. 2021; 8: 28
        • Dodam J.R.
        • Branson K.R.
        • Martin D.D.
        Effects of intramuscular sedative and opioid combinations on tear production in dogs.
        Vet Ophthalmol. 1998; 1: 57-59
        • Doering C.J.
        • Lukasik V.M.
        • Merideth R.E.
        Effects of intramuscular injection of glycopyrrolate on Schirmer tear test I results in dogs.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2016; 248: 1262-1266
        • Douet J.Y.
        • Regnier A.
        • Dongay A.
        • et al.
        Effect of sedation with butorphanol on variables pertaining to the ophthalmic examination in dogs.
        Vet Ophthalmol. 2018; 21: 452-458
        • Featherstone H.J.
        • Heinrich C.L.
        Ophthalmic examination and diagnostics. Part 1: The eye examination and diagnostic procedures.
        in: Gelatt K.N. Gilger B.C. Kern T.J. Veterinary Ophthalmology. 5th edn. John Wiley & Sons, UK2013: 533-613
        • Ferré P.J.
        • Pasloske K.
        • Whittern T.
        • et al.
        Plasma pharmacokinetics of alfaxalone in dogs after an intravenous bolus of Alfaxan-CD RTU.
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2006; 33: 229-236
        • Ghaffari M.S.
        • Malmasi A.
        • Bokaie S.
        Effect of acepromazine or xylazine on tear production as measured by Schirmer tear test in normal cats.
        Vet Ophthalmol. 2010; 13: 1-3
        • Giuliano E.A.
        Diseases and surgery of the canine lacrimal secretory system.
        in: Gelatt K.N. Gilger B.C. Kern T.J. Veterinary Ophthalmology. 5th edn. John Wiley & Sons, UK2013: 912-944
        • Grahn B.H.
        • Storey E.S.
        Lacrimostimulants and lacrimomimetics.
        Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2004; 34: 739-753
        • Gum G.G.
        • MacKay E.O.
        Physiology of the eye.
        in: Gelatt K.N. Gilger B.C. Kern T.J. Veterinary Ophthalmology. 5th edn. John Wiley & Sons, UK2013: 171-207
        • Hamor R.E.
        • Roberts S.M.
        • Severin G.A.
        • Chavkin M.J.
        Evaluation of results for Schirmer tear tests conducted with and without application of a topical anesthetic in clinically normal dogs of 5 breeds.
        Am J Vet Res. 2000; 61: 1422-1425
        • Herring I.P.
        • Pickett J.P.
        • Champagne E.S.
        • Marini M.
        Evaluation of aqueous tear production in dogs following general anesthesia.
        J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2000; 36: 427-430
        • Kanda T.
        • Ishihara S.
        • Oka M.
        • et al.
        Temporal effects of intramuscular administration of medetomidine hydrochloride or xylazine hydrochloride to healthy dogs on tear flow measured by use of a Schirmer tear test I.
        Am J Vet Res. 2016; 77: 346-350
        • Kilic N.
        • Sarierler M.
        Effects of intravenous sedatives and hypnotics on tear production in dogs.
        Indian Vet J. 2005; 82: 786-787
        • Komnenou A.T.H.
        • Kazakos G.M.
        • Savvas I.
        • Thomas A.L.
        Evaluation of aqueous tear production in dogs after general anaesthesia with medetomidine-propofol-carprofen-halothane.
        Vet Rec. 2013; 173: 142
        • Kovalcuka L.
        • Becs A.
        • Strode L.
        Evaluation of the tear production in dog following general anesthesia. International Scientific Conference - Animals. Health. Food Hygiene, International Scientific Conference on Animals, Health.
        Food Hygiene. 2010; (166–166)
        • Leonardi F.
        • Costa G.L.
        • Stagnoli A.
        • et al.
        The effect of intramuscular dexmedetomidine-butorphanol combination on tear production in dogs.
        Can Vet J. 2019; 60: 55-59
        • Ludders J.W.
        • Heavner J.E.
        Effect of atropine on tear formation in anesthetized dogs.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1979; 175: 585-586
        • Luzio-Quiroga A.
        • Aranda-Mella N.
        • Poblete-Lagos O.
        • Jeldres-Bastias A.
        Effect of two anesthetic protocols, propofol versus ketamine-xylazine in the tear production of bitches undergoing ovariohysterectomy.
        Revista Cientifica. 2014; 24: 153-157
        • Maliborski A.
        • Różycki R.
        Diagnostic imaging of the nasolacrimal drainage system. Part I. Radiological anatomy of lacrimal pathways. Physiology of tear secretion and tear outflow.
        Med Sci Monit. 2014; 20: 628-638
        • Mayordomo-Febrer A.
        • Rubio M.
        • Martinez-Gassent M.
        • López-Murcia M.D.
        Effects of morphine-alfaxalone-midazolam premedication, alfaxalone induction and sevoflurane maintenance on intraocular pressure and tear production in dogs.
        Vet Rec. 2017; 180: 474
        • Miller P.E.
        Saunders.
        (Lacrimal system. In: Slatter’s Fundamentals of Veterinary Ophthalmology)in: Maggs D.J. Miller P.E. Ofri R. 4th edn. Elsevier, USA2008: 157-174
        • Mouney M.C.
        • Accola P.J.
        • Cremer J.
        • et al.
        Effects of acepromazine maleate or morphine on tear production before, during, and after sevoflurane anesthesia in dogs.
        Am J Vet Res. 2011; 72: 1427-1430
        • Muir W.W.
        Considerations for general anesthesia.
        in: Tranquilli W.J. Thurmon J.C. Grimm K.A. Lumb & Jones’ Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. 4th edn. Blackwell Publishing, USA2007: 7-30
        • Picker O.
        • Scheeren T.W.
        • Arndt J.O.
        Inhalation anaesthetics increase heart rate by decreasing cardiac vagal activity in dogs.
        Br J Anaesth. 2001; 87: 748-754
        • Pierce-Tomlin T.
        • Shaughnessy M.R.
        • Hofmeister E.H.
        A systematic review of the effects of injectable sedative and anesthetic drugs and inhalant anesthetics on intraocular pressure in the dog.
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2020; 47: 145-151
        • Powell C.C.
        • Martin C.L.
        Distribution of cholinergic and adrenergic nerve fibers in the lacrimal glands of dogs.
        Am J Vet Res. 1989; 50: 2084-2088
        • Rankin D.C.
        Sedatives and tranquilizers.
        in: Grimm K.A. Lamont L.A. Tranquilli W.J. Lumb & Jones’ Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. 5th edn. Wiley Blackwell, USA2015: 196-207
        • Rastabi H.
        • Baniadam A.
        • Ronagh A.
        • et al.
        Comparison of intraocular pressure, tear production and cardiorespiratory variables before and after induction of anaesthesia with either propofol or ketofol in dogs premedicated with midazolam.
        Vet Med. 2018; 63: 271-278
        • Raušer P.
        • Němečková H.
        • Mrázová M.
        • et al.
        The influence of fentanyl injection followed by infusion on the intraocular pressure, pupil size and aqueous tear production in healthy non-painful dogs.
        Vet Med. 2019; 64: 455-488
        • Ruiz T.
        • Peres T.P.D.
        • Campos W.N.D.
        • et al.
        Effects of tramadol on tear production, intraocular pressure, and pupil size in dogs: Clinical study.
        Ciencia Rural. 2015; 45: 724-729
        • Sanchez R.F.
        • Mellor D.
        • Mould J.
        Effects of medetomidine and medetomidine-butorphanol combination on Schirmer tear test 1 readings in dogs.
        Vet Ophthalmol. 2006; 9: 33-37
        • Santos P.H.A.
        • Pontes K.C.S.
        • Pinto R.
        • et al.
        Comparison of pupil diameter and tear production in dogs treated with acepromazine, tramadol and their combination.
        Rev Ceres Viçosa. 2013; 60: 166-172
        • Shepard M.K.
        • Accola P.J.
        • Lopez L.A.
        • et al.
        Effect of duration and type of anesthetic on tear production in dogs.
        Am J Vet Res. 2011; 72: 608-612
        • Soontornvipart K.
        • Raušer P.
        • Kecová H.
        • Lexmaulová L.
        Effect of anaesthetic premedication with medetomidine-buprenorphine on the aqueous tear production in dogs.
        Acta Vet Brno. 2003; 72: 267-272
        • Tudor R.
        • Costea R.
        • Degan A.
        • Predoi G.
        Correlation between duration of gas anesthesia with isoflurane and the reduction of tear production in geriatric patients.
        Scientific Works Series. 2017; 18: 136-139
        • Tudor R.G.
        • Degan A.
        • Costea R.
        • Predoi G.
        Tears production evaluation during a protocol of anaesthesia for geriatric dogs.
        Revista Romana Med Vet. 2018; 28: 25-28
        • Tzubota K.
        Tear dynamics and dry eye.
        Prog Retin Eye Res. 1998; 17: 565-596
        • Vestre W.A.
        • Brightman A.H.
        • Helper L.C.
        • Lowery J.C.
        Decreased tear production associated with general anesthesia in the dog.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1979; 174: 1006-1007
        • Volk H.A.
        • West E.
        • Linn-Pearl R.N.
        • et al.
        Effect of methadone and acepromazine premedication on tear production in dogs.
        Vet Rec Open. 2018; 5: 1-7
        • Westermeyer H.D.
        • Ward D.A.
        • Abrams K.
        Breed predisposition to congenital alacrimia in dogs.
        Vet Ophthalmol. 2009; 12: 1-5
        • Zernii E.Y.
        • Golovastova M.O.
        • Baksheeva V.E.
        • et al.
        Alterations in tear biochemistry associated with postanesthetic chronic dry eye syndrome.
        Biochemistry. 2016; 81: 1549-1557