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Reliability of pulse oximetry at four different attachment sites in immobilized white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum)

  • Thembeka K. Mtetwa
    Correspondence
    Correspondence: Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, Gauteng 0110, South Africa.
    Affiliations
    Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa

    Centre for Veterinary Wildlife Research, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa
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  • Edward P. Snelling
    Affiliations
    Centre for Veterinary Wildlife Research, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa

    Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa
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  • Peter Buss
    Affiliations
    Veterinary Wildlife Services, South African National Parks, Kruger National Park, Skukuza, South Africa
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  • Gareth E. Zeiler
    Affiliations
    Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa
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  • Leith CR. Meyer
    Affiliations
    Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa

    Centre for Veterinary Wildlife Research, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa
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Published:August 24, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2022.08.006

      Abstract

      Objectives

      To determine the reliability of peripheral oxygen haemoglobin saturation (SpO2), measured by a Nonin PalmSAT 2500A pulse oximeter with 2000T transflectance probes at four attachment sites (third eyelid, cheek, rectum and tail), by comparing these measurements to arterial oxygen haemoglobin saturation (SaO2), measured by an AVOXimeter 4000 co-oximeter reference method in immobilized white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

      Study design

      Randomized crossover study.

      Animals

      A convenience sample of eight wild-caught male white rhinoceros.

      Methods

      White rhinoceros were immobilized with etorphine (0.0026 ± 0.0002 mg kg–1, mean ± standard deviation) intramuscularly, after which the pinna was aseptically prepared for arterial blood sample collection, and four pulse oximeters with transflectance probes were fixed securely to their attachment sites (third eyelid, cheek, rectum and tail). At 30 minutes following recumbency resulting from etorphine administration, the animals were given either butorphanol (0.026 ± 0.0001 mg kg–1) or an equivalent volume of saline intravenously. At 60 minutes following recumbency, insufflated oxygen (15 L minute–1 flow rate) was provided intranasally. In total, the SpO2 paired measurements from the third eyelid (n = 80), cheek (n = 67), rectum (n = 59) and tail (n = 76) were compared with near-simultaneous SaO2 measurements using Bland-Altman to assess bias (accuracy), precision, and the area root mean squares (ARMS) method.

      Results

      Compared with SaO2, SpO2 measurements from the third eyelid were reliable (i.e., accurate and precise) above an SaO2 range of 70% (bias = 1, precision = 3, ARMS = 3). However, SpO2 measurements from the cheek, rectum and tail were unreliable (i.e., inaccurate or imprecise).

      Conclusions and clinical relevance

      A Nonin PalmSAT pulse oximeter with a transflectance probe inserted into the space between the third eyelid and the sclera provided reliable SpO2 measurements when SaO2 was > 70%, in immobilized white rhinoceros.

      Keywords

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