Advertisement

Anesthetic and analgesic techniques used for dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomies in general practice in the United States

Published:August 08, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2022.07.010

      Abstract

      Objective

      To acquire information about anesthesia and analgesia protocols used by United States (US) veterinarians in primary care practices when performing routine ovariohysterectomy in dogs.

      Study design

      Cross-sectional survey.

      Population

      Primary care veterinarians in the US.

      Methods

      An online anonymous survey, originally created in New Zealand, was modified with permission and made available to Veterinary Information Network (VIN) members. The survey asked questions about performing ovariohysterectomy in healthy adolescent dogs in the categories of preanesthetic evaluation, premedication and induction protocols, maintenance protocols and monitoring equipment, and postoperative analgesic and sedation protocols and pain assessments.

      Results

      A total of 1213 US veterinarians completed the survey. Respondents (n; %) reported performing preoperative laboratory tests [packed cell volume (135; 11%), complete blood cell count (889; 73%) and biochemistry panels (1057; 87%)] and preanesthetic examinations on the morning of surgery (1083; 90%). The most commonly administered drugs for premedication were acepromazine (512; 42%), hydromorphone (475; 39%) or butorphanol (463; 38%), with propofol (637; 67%) for induction of anesthesia and isoflurane (882; 73%) for maintenance of anesthesia. Most veterinarians reported placing intravenous catheters (945; 78%), administering electrolyte solutions (747; 67%) and providing heat support (1160; 96%). Perioperative and postoperative analgesia included local anesthetics (545; 45%), opioids (844; 70%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (953; 79%); NSAIDs were dispensed for home use (985; 81%). Dogs were most frequently discharged on the day of surgery (1068; 88%) and the owners were contacted (914; 75%) for follow-up within 1–2 days.

      Conclusions and clinical relevance

      Anesthetic management for routine ovariohysterectomy in dogs varies among US veterinary VIN members. Information from this study is useful for all veterinarians for comparison with their practice management and for teachers of veterinary anesthesia to continue to emphasize options for analgesia.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Alef M.
        • von Praun F.
        • Oechtering G.
        Is routine pre-anaesthetic haematological and biochemical screening justified in dogs?.
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2008; 35: 132-140
        • Davis H.
        • Jensen T.
        • Johnson A.
        • et al.
        2013 AAHA/AAFP fluid therapy guidelines for dogs and cats.
        J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2013; 49: 149-159
        • Demetriou J.L.
        • Geddes R.F.
        • Jeffery N.D.
        Survey of pet owners' expectations of surgical practice within first opinion veterinary clinics in Great Britain.
        J Small Anim Pract. 2009; 50: 478-487
        • Epstein M.
        • Rodan I.
        • Griffenhagen G.
        • et al.
        2015 AAHA/AAFP Pain management guidelines for dogs and cats.
        J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2015; 51: 67-84
        • Erickson A.
        • Harbin K.
        • MacPherson J.
        • et al.
        A review of pre-appointment medications to reduce fear and anxiety in dogs and cats at veterinary visits.
        Can Vet J. 2021; 62: 952-960
        • Gates M.C.
        • Littlewood K.E.
        • Kongara K.
        • et al.
        Cross-sectional survey of anaesthesia and analgesia protocols used to perform routine canine and feline ovariohysterectomies.
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2020; 47: 38-46
        • Grint N.J.
        • Murison P.J.
        • Coe R.J.
        • Waterman Pearson A.E.
        Assessment of the influence of surgical technique on postoperative pain and wound tenderness in cats following ovariohysterectomy.
        J Feline Med Surg. 2006; 8: 15-21
        • Grubb T.
        • Sager J.
        • Gaynor J.S.
        • et al.
        2020 AAHA anesthesia and monitoring guidelines for dogs and cats.
        J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2020; 56: 59-82
        • Hancock R.B.
        • Lanz O.I.
        • Waldron D.R.
        • et al.
        Comparison of postoperative pain after ovariohysterectomy by harmonic scalpel-assisted laparoscopy compared with median celiotomy and ligation in dogs.
        Vet Surg. 2005; 34: 273-282
        • Hay Kraus B.L.
        Efficacy of maropitant in preventing vomiting in dogs premedicated with hydromorphone.
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2013; 40: 28-34
        • Johnson R.A.
        Maropitant prevented vomiting but not gastroesophageal reflux in anesthetized dogs premedicated with acepromazine-hydromorphone.
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2014; 41: 406-410
        • Mitchell K.
        • Barletta M.
        • Quandt J.
        • et al.
        Effect of routine pre-anesthetic laboratory screening on pre-operative anesthesia-related decision-making in healthy dogs.
        Can Vet J. 2018; 59: 773-778
        • Pottie R.G.
        • Dart C.M.
        • Perkins N.R.
        • Hodgson D.R.
        Effect of hypothermia on recovery from general anaesthesia in the dog.
        Aust Vet J. 2007; 85: 158-162
        • Sano H.
        • Barker K.
        • Odom T.
        • et al.
        A survey of dog and cat anaesthesia in a sample of veterinary practices in New Zealand.
        N Z Vet J. 2018; 66: 85-92
        • Shih A.C.
        • Robertson S.
        • Isaza N.
        • et al.
        Comparison between analgesic effects of buprenorphine, carprofen, and buprenorphine with carprofen for canine ovariohysterectomy.
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2008; 35: 69-79
        • Wagner A.E.
        • Hellyer P.W.
        Survey of anesthesia techniques and concerns in private veterinary practice.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2000; 217: 1652-1657
        • Watanabe R.
        • Monteiro B.P.
        • Evangelista M.C.
        • et al.
        The analgesic effects of buprenorphine (Vetergesic or Simbadol) in combination with carprofen in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy: a randomized, blinded, clinical trial.
        BMC Vet Res. 2018; 14: 304