Advertisement

Evaluation of outflow temperatures generated by a dry heat fluid warmer at low fluid rates

      Abstract

      Objective

      To evaluate the output temperature of a dry heat fluid warmer at fluid rates typically used in small animal veterinary patients.

      Study design

      Prospective in vitro study.

      Animals

      None.

      Methods

      Ambient temperature lactated Ringer’s (17.9-18.8 °C) was delivered via a dry heat fluid warmer. A temperature probe was used to measure fluid outflow temperature from the compatible giving set at 5, 10, 20, 50, 70, 80, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mL hour–1. Outflow fluid temperature at plateau (two consecutive readings within 0.1 °C) was compared with baseline fluid temperature (fluid warmer turned off) to calculate temperature changes at each rate. Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare changes in temperature and time to plateau temperature. Dunn’s post hoc test was used to test for significant differences in temperature compared to 5 mL hour–1; p value < 0.05.

      Results

      Median plateau outflow temperature increased as fluid rate increased, with temperatures of 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8, 19.4, 19.4, 21.5, 25.3, 28.5, 30.7 and 32.6 °C, at flow rates of 5, 10, 20, 50, 70, 80, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mL hour–1. Fluid rates > 100 mL hour–1 showed significant increases from baseline (p = 0.021) There was no difference in temperature change from baseline at fluid rates < 100 mL hour–1 (p > 0.05). Compared to plateau temperature at 5 mL hour-1, there was a statistical difference in plateau temperature above 100 mL hour–1 (p = 0.0207). Maximum outflow plateau temperature was 32.6 °C at 500 mL hour–1.

      Conclusions and clinical relevance

      A dry heat fluid warmer has significantly decreased efficacy at low fluid rates, with no statistically significant increase in fluid temperature at fluid rates below 100 mL hour–1 at the end of a compatible fluid line. Inline dry heat fluid warmers are ineffective at fluid rates below 100 mL hour–1.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Armstrong S.
        • Roberts K.
        • Aronsohn M.
        Perioperative hypothermia.
        J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2005; 15: 32-37
        • Chiang V.
        • Hopper K.
        • Mellema M.
        In vitro evaluation of the efficacy of a veterinary dry heat fluid warmer.
        J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2011; 21: 639-647
        • Davis H.
        • Jensen T.
        • Johnson A.
        • et al.
        2013 AAHA/AAFP fluid therapy guidelines for dogs and cats.
        JAAHA. 2013; 49: 149-159
        • Faries G.
        • Johnston C.
        • Pruitt K.
        • Plouff R.T.
        Temperature relationship to distance and flow rate of warmed i.v. fluid.
        Ann Emerg Med. 1991; 20: 1198-1200
        • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence
        The management of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia in adults (Clinical Guideline 65).
        2008 (Updated: 14 December 2016)
        • Redondo J.I.
        • Suesta P.
        • Serra I.
        • et al.
        Retrospective study of the prevalence of postanaesthetic hypothermia in dogs.
        Vet Rec. 2012; 171: 374
        • Singleton W.
        • McLean M.
        • Smale M.
        • et al.
        An analysis of the temperature change in warmed intravenous fluids during administration in cold environments.
        Air Med J. 2017; 36: 127-130
        • Steelman V.M.
        • Chae S.
        • Duff J.
        • et al.
        Warming of irrigation fluids for prevention of perioperative hypothermia during arthroscopy: a systematic review and meta- analysis.
        Arthroscopy. 2018; 34: 930-942.e2
        • Thompson K.R.
        • MacFarlane P.D.
        Effect of irrigation fluid temperature on body temperature during arthroscopic elbow surgery in dogs.
        Open Vet J. 2013; 3: 114-120
        • Thongsukh V.
        • Kositratana C.
        • Jandonpai A.
        Effect of fluid flow rate on efficacy of fluid warmers: an in vitro experimental study.
        Anesthesiol Res Pract. 2018; 8792125