Pharmacokinetics, efficacy and convulsive dose of articaine hydrochloride in goat kids

Published:December 29, 2020DOI:



      To investigate the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and convulsive dose of articaine hydrochloride in goat kids.

      Study design

      Experimental prospective study.


      A total of 18 (n = 6 animals per experiment) male Saanen goat kids (2–4 weeks old).


      The study consisted of three experiments. The first determined the pharmacokinetics of articaine following intravenous administration of articaine hydrochloride (8 mg kg–1). The second experiment investigated the anaesthetic efficacy and pharmacokinetics following cornual nerve block using 1.5% articaine hydrochloride. Anaesthesia of horn buds was evaluated using the response to pinprick test. Non-compartmental analysis was used. The final experiment determined the convulsive dose of articaine and its corresponding plasma concentration following intravenous infusion of articaine hydrochloride (4 mg kg–1 minute–1). Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation.


      The mean terminal half-life (t1/2λz), mean volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss) and mean plasma clearance (CL) of articaine following intravenous administration were 0.66 hour, 3.81 L kg–1 and 5.33 L hour–1 kg–1, respectively. After cornual nerve block, the mean maximum plasma concentration of articaine was 587 ng mL–1 at 0.22 hour and its mean t1/2λz was 1.26 hours. Anaesthesia of horn buds was observed within 4 minutes following cornual nerve block. The mean dose required to produce convulsions was 16.24 mg kg–1 and mean convulsive plasma concentrations of articaine and articainic acid were 9905 and 1517 ng mL–1, respectively.


      Intravenous administration of 8 mg kg–1 of articaine hydrochloride did not cause any adverse effects. Pharmacokinetic data suggest that articaine was rapidly eliminated and cleared. Cornual nerve block using 1.5% articaine hydrochloride alleviated the response to the acute nociceptive stimulus during disbudding.

      Clinical relevance

      Articaine hydrochloride appears to be a safe and effective local anaesthetic for disbudding in goat kids.


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