Advertisement

Preliminary survey of the attitudes of Brazilian scientists towards pain management and assessment in animals used in science

      Abstract

      Objective

      To investigate the current scenario in Brazil regarding pain assessment and control in experimental animals.

      Study design

      Prospective survey.

      Methods

      A confidential questionnaire was available online and sent by e-mail to Brazilian scientists working with animal experimentation in Brazil. Data collection was conducted from October 2016 to October 2017. The exclusion criteria included blank questionnaires or with <80% completed responses, researchers not performing experiments involving animals and foreign scientists.

      Results

      A total of 96 questionnaires from 104 respondents were analyzed. The Fisher’s exact test showed a disparity between the proportions of scientists who recognized the importance of analgesia and their application of analgesic techniques in painful procedures (p < 0.0003), and also for the researchers who assumed that experiments inflicted pain and their classification of the degree of invasiveness (p < 0.0001), indicating their insufficient knowledge of these topics. Overall, 77% of institutions did not offer specific training to assess pain in experimental animals, and 24% of respondents had no training to work with animal experimentation. In total, 62% of the studies inflicted pain, 48% of respondents used pain scales, and the drugs administered most frequently for pain management were morphine (44%), meloxicam (43%) and tramadol (37%); 15% of respondents did not include analgesics even though their studies inflicted pain. Commonly used animals were rats (33%), mice (29%) and rabbits (8%).

      Conclusions and clinical relevance

      The results of this preliminary survey indicated that in Brazil there is a gap in the knowledge and training on pain assessment and management of experimental animals. Therefore, there is a necessity for an educational program to prepare and train scientists to assess and manage pain in laboratory or experimental animals. Further studies using a psychometrically validated survey instrument are warranted.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Anderson L.C.
        Institutional and IACUC responsibilities for animal care and use education and training programs.
        ILAR J. 2007; 48: 90-95
        • Ashmawi H.A.
        • Freire G.M.G.
        Peripheral and central sensitization.
        Rev Dor. 2016; 17: 31-34
        • Braithwaite V.A.
        • Ebbesson L.O.E.
        Pain and stress responses in farmed fish.
        Rev Sci Tech. 2014; 33: 245-253
        • Canadian Council on Animal Care
        Categories of invasiveness in animal experiments investigators. CCAC policy statement.
        1991
        • Carbone L.
        Pain in laboratory animals: the ethical and regulatory imperatives.
        PLoS One. 2011; 6e21578
        • Carbone L.
        • Austin J.
        Pain and laboratory animals: publication practices for better data reproducibility and better animal welfare.
        PLoS One. 2016; 11e0155001
        • CONCEA
        Resolução Normativa CONCEA no 39,.
        2018 (de 20.06.2018)
        • Coulter C.A.
        • Flecknell P.A.
        • Leach M.C.
        • Richardson C.A.
        Reported analgesic administration to rabbits undergoing experimental surgical procedures.
        BMC Vet Res. 2011; 7: 12
        • Dalla Costa E.
        • Minero M.
        • Lebelt D.
        • et al.
        Development of the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) as a pain assessment tool in horses undergoing routine castration.
        PLoS ONE. 2014; 9e92281
        • Di Giminiani P.
        • Brierley V.L.
        • Scollo A.
        • et al.
        The assessment of facial expressions in piglets undergoing tail docking and castration: toward the development of the Piglet Grimace Scale.
        Front Vet Sci. 2016; 3: 100
        • Evangelista M.C.
        • Watanabe R.
        • Leung V.S.Y.
        • et al.
        Facial expressions of pain in cats: the development and validation of a Feline Grimace Scale.
        Sci Rep. 2019; 9: 19128
        • Fagundes D.J.
        • Taha M.O.
        Animal disease model: choice’s criteria and current animals specimens.
        Acta Cir Bras. 2004; 19: 59-65
        • Fenwick N.
        • Duffus S.E.G.
        • Griffin G.
        Pain management for animals used in science: views of scientists and veterinarians in Canada.
        Animals. 2014; 4: 494-514
        • Flecknell P.
        Analgesia from a veterinary perspective.
        Br J Anaesth. 2008; 101: 121-124
        • Foley P.L.
        Current options for providing sustained analgesia to laboratory animals.
        Lab Anim. 2014; 43: 364-371
        • Gaynor J.S.
        • Muir W.W.
        Handbook of Veterinary Pain Management.
        3rd edn. Mosby Elsevier, USA2014
        • Graham D.M.
        Methods for measuring pain in laboratory animals.
        Lab Anim. 2016; 45: 99-101
        • Grune B.
        • Hensel A.
        • Schönfelder G.
        Animal welfare: rules for assessing pain in lab animals.
        Nature. 2014; 512: 28
        • Guneli E.
        • Karabay Yavasaglu N.U.K.
        • Apaydin S.
        • et al.
        Analysis of the antinociceptive effect of systemic administration of tramadol and dexmedetomidine combination on rat models of acute and neuropathic pain.
        Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2007; 88: 9-17
        • Häger C.
        • Biernot S.
        • Buettner M.
        • et al.
        The Sheep Grimace Scale as an indicator of post-operative distress and pain in laboratory sheep.
        PLoS ONE. 2017; 12e0175839
        • Hawkins P.
        Recognising and assessing pain, suffering and distress in laboratory animals: a survey of current practice in the UK with recommendations.
        Lab Anim. 2002; 36: 378-395
        • Hunter F.M.I.
        • Atkinson F.L.
        • Bento A.P.
        • et al.
        A large-scale dataset of in vivo pharmacology assay results.
        Sci Data. 2018; 5: 180230
        • Jirkof P.
        Side effects of pain and analgesia in animal experimentation.
        Lab Anim. 2017; 46: 123-128
        • Keating S.C.J.
        • Thomas A.A.
        • Flecknell P.A.
        • Leach M.C.
        Evaluation of EMLA cream for preventing pain during tattooing of rabbits: changes in physiological, behavioural and facial expression responses.
        PLoS One. 2012; 7e44437
        • Lauer A.M.
        • May B.J.
        • Hao Z.J.
        • Watson J.
        Analysis of environmental sound levels in modern rodent housing rooms.
        Lab Anim. 2009; 38: 154-160
        • Leta J.
        As mulheres na ciência brasileira: crescimento, contrastes e um perfil de sucesso (Women in Brazilian science: growth, contrasts and a profile of success).
        Estud Av. 2003; 17 ([In Portugese]): 271-284
        • Lorena S.E.
        • Luna S.P.
        • Lascelles B.D.
        • Corrente J.E.
        Attitude of Brazilian veterinarians in the recognition and treatment of pain in horses and cattle.
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2013; 40: 410-418
        • Lorena S.E.
        • Luna S.P.
        • Lascelles B.D.
        • Corrente J.E.
        Current attitudes regarding the use of perioperative analgesics in dogs and cats by Brazilian veterinarians.
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2014; 41: 82-89
        • Macrì S.
        • Pasquali P.
        • Bonsignore L.T.
        • et al.
        Moderate neonatal stress decreases within-group variation in behavioral, immune and HPA responses in adult mice.
        PLoS One. 2007; 2e1015
        • Matsumiya L.C.
        • Sorge R.
        • Sotocinal S.G.
        • et al.
        Using the Mouse Grimace Scale to reevaluate the efficacy of postoperative analgesics in laboratory mice.
        J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2012; 51: 42-49
        • MCTIC
        Normativas do CONCEA para produção, manutenção ou utilização de animais em atividades de ensino ou pesquisa científica.
        3 ed. Brasília, 2016
        • National Research Council
        Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
        8th edn. The National Academies Press, USA2011
        http://www.nap.edu
        Date accessed: September 4, 2019
        • Paul-Murphy J.
        • Ludders J.W.
        • Robertson S.A.
        • et al.
        The need for a cross-species approach to the study of pain in animals.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2004; 224: 692-697
        • Peterson A.
        • Carlfjord S.
        • Schaller A.
        • et al.
        Using education and support strategies to improve the way nurses assess regular and transient pain – a quality improvement study of three hospitals.
        Scand J Pain. 2017; 16: 15-21
        • Poole T.
        Happy animals make good science.
        Lab Anim. 1997; 31: 116-124
        • Prescott M.J.
        • Lidster K.
        Improving quality of science through better animal welfare: The NC3Rs strategy.
        Lab Anim. 2017; 46: 152-156
        • Racine M.
        • Tousignant-Laflamme Y.
        • Kloda L.A.
        • et al.
        A systematic literature review of 10 years of research on sex/gender and pain perception – part 2: do biopsychosocial factors alter pain sensitivity differently in women and men?.
        Pain. 2012; 153: 619-635
        • Sotocinal S.G.
        • Sorge R.E.
        • Zaloum A.
        • et al.
        The Rat Grimace Scale: a partially automated method for quantifying pain in the laboratory rat via facial expressions.
        Mol Pain. 2011; 7: 55
        • Whittaker A.L.
        • Howarth G.S.
        Use of spontaneous behaviour measures to assess pain in laboratory rats and mice: how are we progressing?.
        Appl Anim Behav Sci. 2014; 151: 1-12