RESEARCH PAPER| Volume 47, ISSUE 3, P341-346, May 2020

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Minimum anesthetic concentration of isoflurane and sparing effect of midazolam in Quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus)

Published:February 04, 2020DOI:



      To determine the effects of midazolam on the minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) reduction of end-tidal isoflurane concentration (Fe′Iso) measured using an electrical stimulus in Quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

      Study design

      Randomized crossover experimental study.


      A group of six adult Quaker parrots, weighing 98–124 g.


      Birds were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen delivered by mask, then tracheally intubated and mechanically ventilated. Three treatments were applied with a 4 day interval between anesthetic events. Each anesthetized bird was administered midazolam (1 mg kg−1; treatment MID1), midazolam (2 mg kg−1; treatment MID2) or electrolyte solution (control) intramuscularly. The treatments were administered using a replicated Latin square design and the observers were blinded. Based on a pilot bird, the starting Fe′Iso was 1.8%. After equilibration for 10 minutes, a supramaximal stimulus was delivered using an electrical current (20 V and 50 Hz for 10 ms) and birds were observed for non-reflex movement. The Fe′Iso was titrated by 0.1% until a crossover event was observed. The MAC was estimated using logistic regression.


      The MAC of isoflurane (MACISO) was estimated at 2.52% [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.19–2.85] with a range of 1.85–2.65%. MACISO in MID1 was 2.04% (95% CI, 1.71–2.37) and in MID2 was 1.81% (95% CI, 1.48–2.14); reductions in MACISO from control of 19% (p = 0.001) and 28% (p < 0.001), respectively. Heart rate, temperature, sex and anesthetic time were not different among treatments.


      Midazolam (1–2 mg kg−1) intramuscularly resulted in a significant isoflurane-sparing effect in response to a noxious stimulus in Quaker parrots without observable adverse effects.

      Clinical relevance

      Midazolam can be used as part of a balanced anesthetic approach using isoflurane in Quaker parrots, and potentially in other psittacine species.


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