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Description of a regional anaesthesia technique for the dorsal cranium in the dog: a cadaveric study

  • Yishai Kushnir
    Correspondence
    Correspondence: Yishai Kushnir, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Robert H Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P. O. Box 12, Rehovot 7610001, Israel.
    Affiliations
    Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Robert H Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel
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  • Gal S. Marwitz
    Affiliations
    Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Robert H Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel
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  • Yael Shilo-Benjamini
    Affiliations
    Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Robert H Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel
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  • Joshua Milgram
    Affiliations
    Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Robert H Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel
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      Abstract

      Objective

      To identify landmarks and to describe a technique for nerve blockade of the dorsal cranium in dogs.

      Study design

      Anatomic cadaveric study.

      Animals

      A total of 39 dog cadavers, weighing 18.0 ± 9.7 kg (mean ± standard deviation).

      Methods

      The study was performed in three parts. In the initial part, cadavers were dissected to determine the location of the frontal, zygomaticotemporal, and major occipital nerves, and to identify prominent landmarks for their blockade. In the second part, one technique was developed to block each of the frontal and zygomaticotemporal nerves, and two techniques, rostral and caudal, were developed to block the major occipital nerve. Injection solution was 0.05% methylene blue in 0.5% bupivacaine. In the third part, cadavers were used to test the techniques developed in the second part with 0.04 mL kg−1 of the same injectate administered at each site (maximal volume 0.5 mL per site). The length of nerve stained was measured, with a length ≥6 mm considered successful. Confidence intervals were calculated using Fisher’s exact test.

      Results

      Success rates (95% confidence interval) for the frontal, zygomaticotemporal, and rostral and caudal locations for the major occipital nerve were 94% (80–99%), 91% (76–98%), 74% (58–86%) and 77% (59–89%), respectively. With a combination of both locations, the success rate for the major occipital nerve was 100% (90–100%).

      Conclusion and clinical relevance

      This study describes a simple regional anaesthesia technique using palpable anatomical landmarks that may provide analgesia for dogs undergoing craniotomy.

      Keywords

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