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The influence of demeanor on scores from two validated feline pain assessment scales during the perioperative period

  • Author Footnotes
    1 Co-first authorship.
    ,
    Author Footnotes
    2 Current address: M Buisman, Tudor Glen Veterinary Hospital, St. Albert, AB T8N 3V4, Canada.
    Mandy Buisman
    Footnotes
    1 Co-first authorship.
    2 Current address: M Buisman, Tudor Glen Veterinary Hospital, St. Albert, AB T8N 3V4, Canada.
    Affiliations
    Veterinary Clinical and Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 Co-first authorship.
    ,
    Author Footnotes
    3 Current address: MMM Hasiuk, Department of Small Animal Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA.
    Michelle M.M. Hasiuk
    Footnotes
    1 Co-first authorship.
    3 Current address: MMM Hasiuk, Department of Small Animal Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA.
    Affiliations
    Veterinary Clinical and Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
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  • Marta Gunn
    Affiliations
    City of Calgary Animal Services Centre Clinic, Calgary, AB, Canada
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  • Daniel S.J. Pang
    Correspondence
    Correspondence: Daniel SJ Pang, Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 2M2, Canada.
    Affiliations
    Groupe de recherche en pharmacologie animale du Québec (GREPAQ), QC, Canada
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Co-first authorship.
    2 Current address: M Buisman, Tudor Glen Veterinary Hospital, St. Albert, AB T8N 3V4, Canada.
    3 Current address: MMM Hasiuk, Department of Small Animal Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA.
Published:January 07, 2017DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2016.09.001

      Abstract

      Objective

      To evaluate the effects of demeanor on validated pain assessment scales.

      Study design

      Prospective, blind, clinical trial.

      Animal population

      Thirty three adult domestic cats scheduled for orchiectomy.

      Methods

      Cats were assessed for pain pre (baseline) and 1, 2, 4 hours postoperatively using two validated pain scales [Composite Measures Pain Scale-Feline (rCMPS-F) and UNESP-Botucatu multidimensional composite pain scale (psychomotor and pain expression subscales; U-B MCPS-psych and -painex)], and a demeanor scale. Return of sternal recumbency and postoperative feeding were recorded. Anesthesia consisted of a single intramuscular injection of dexmedetomidine-ketamine-hydromorphone with intratesticular lidocaine and atipamezole and meloxicam postoperatively. Following data collection, cats were assigned to two groups based on baseline demeanor scores (LO ≤ 5/21, 18 cats; HI ≥ 6/21, 15 cats) and data from each group compared.

      Results

      Baseline demeanor predicted pain scores with the U-B MCPS-psych scale: baseline [LO 0 (0–0), HI 2 (0–6), p = 0.0005], 1 hour [LO 1 (0–5), HI 3 (1–5), p = 0.02], and 4 hours [LO 0 (0–2), HI 1 (0–6), p = 0.01]. A similar pattern was observed with the rCMPS-F. This resulted in more crossings of the analgesic intervention threshold in the HI group: U-B UNESP-psych (9 versus 1, p = 0.005) and rCMPS-F (23 versus 3, p < 0.0001). In contrast, U-B MCPS-painex scores did not differ between LO/HI groups: baseline (p > 0.99), 1 hour (p = 0.34), 2 hours (p > 0.99) and 4 hours (p = 0.31). LO cats ate sooner (61% versus 33% by 1 hour, p < 0.0001) despite similar times to sternal recumbency (p = 0.48).

      Conclusions and clinical relevance

      Demeanor affected pain assessment with U-B UNESP-psych and rCMPS-F scales, but not U-B UNESP-painex scale. Demeanor had a significant effect on postoperative feeding. These data highlight the potential for demeanor to confound pain assessment.

      Keywords

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