Antinociceptive, cardiopulmonary, and sedative effects of five intravenous infusion rates of lidocaine in conscious dogs



      To observe antinociceptive, cardiopulmonary and sedative effects of five different 12-hour lidocaine infusions in conscious dogs, and measure plasma lidocaine concentrations.

      Study design

      Two-part randomized, prospective, blinded, cross-over experimental study.


      Six neutered male, crossbred dogs approximately 1–2 years of age and weighing 29.1 ± 4.0 kg.


      Dogs received lidocaine [2 mg kg−1, intravenous (IV)] or equivalent volume of 0.9% saline followed by infusion of either lidocaine at 10 (L10), 25 (L25), 50 (L50), 75 (L75), or 100 (L100) μg kg−1 minute−1, or equivalent rate of saline (Control). The study was conducted in two parts comparing L10, L25 and L50 to control, and then L75 and L100 to another control. Heart and respiratory rates, and indirect arterial blood pressure were measured for 12 hours; before (baseline), during and after infusion. Sedation was scored using descriptive categories, and nociceptive threshold determined using electrical cutaneous stimulation. Plasma lidocaine concentrations were measured using ELISA. Nonparametric and parametric tests for repeated measures were used and p < 0.05.


      Nociceptive thresholds were not different from the saline control treatment at any time. Respiratory rate decreased 2–12 hours in treatments L25, L75 and L100. Blood pressure increased after 4 hours in treatment L100 compared to baseline. Sedation scores increased compared to baseline (L10: 30 minutes–8 hours; L25: 30 minutes–2 hours, 8 hours; L50: 30 minutes, 8 hours, 12 hours; L75: 4–12 hours; L100: 15 minutes, 8–12 hours), and to Control. Treatment L75 had higher plasma lidocaine concentrations than L10; and L100 had higher concentrations than L10 and L25. Occasional vomiting was observed in dogs receiving lidocaine when plasma lidocaine concentrations exceeded 4 μg mL−1.

      Conclusions and clinical relevance

      High lidocaine infusion rates did not have antinociceptive effects compared with saline and were associated with mild-moderate sedation and some signs of toxicity in awake dogs.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Bergadano A
        • Andersen OK
        • Arendt-Nielsen L
        • et al.
        Noninvasive assessment of the facilitation of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex by repeated electrical stimulations in conscious dogs.
        Am J Vet Res. 2007; 68: 899-907
        • Bonagura JD
        • Muir WW
        Antiarrhythmic therapy.
        in: Tilley LP Essentials of Canine and Feline Electrocardiography. 2nd edn. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, PA, USA1985: 281
        • Chandler JC
        • Monnet E
        • Staatz AJ
        Comparison of acute hemodynamic effects of lidocaine and procainamide for postoperative ventricular arrhythmias in dogs.
        J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2006; 42: 262-268
        • Dirikolu L
        • Lehner AF
        • Karpeisiuk W
        • et al.
        Identification of lidocaine and its metabolites in post-administration equine urine by ELISA and MS/MS.
        J Vet Pharmacol Therap. 2000; 23: 215-222
        • Duke T
        • Komulainen-Cox AM
        • Remedios AM
        • et al.
        The analgesic effects of placing fentanyl or medetomidine in the lumbosacral epidural space of cats.
        Vet Surg. 1994; 23: 143-148
        • Feldman HS
        • Arthur GR
        • Covino BG
        Comparative systemic toxicity of convulsant and supraconvulsant doses of intravenous ropivacaine, bupivacaine, and lidocaine in the conscious dog.
        Anesth Analg. 1989; 69: 794-801
        • Fujita Y
        Comparative direct effects of lidocaine and bupivacaine on regional myocardial function in dogs at noncardiovascular toxic levels.
        Anesth Analg. 1994; 78: 1158-1163
        • Harkins JD
        • Mundy GD
        • Woods WE
        • et al.
        Lidocaine in the horse: its pharmacological effects and their relationship to analytical findings.
        J Vet Pharmacol Therap. 1998; 21: 462-476
        • Hashimoto K
        • Shibuya T
        • Imai S
        Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of antiarrhythmic drugs on conscious beagles.
        Tohoku J Exp Med. 1985; 145: 359-367
        • Koppert W
        • Zeck S
        • Sitti R
        • et al.
        Low-dose lidocaine suppresses experimentally induced hyperalgesia in humans.
        Anesthesiology. 1998; 89: 1345-1353
        • Koppert W
        • Brueckl V
        • Weidner C
        • et al.
        Mechanically induced axon reflex and hyperalgesia in human UV-B are reduced by systemic lidocaine.
        Eur J Pain. 2004; 8: 237-244
        • Koppert W
        • Weigand M
        • Neumann F
        • et al.
        Perioperative intravenous lidocaine has preventative effects on postoperative pain and morphine consumption after major abdominal surgery.
        Anesth Analg. 2004; 98: 1050-1055
        • Krejcy K
        • Krumpl G
        • Todt H
        • et al.
        Lidocaine has a narrow antiarrhythmic dose range against ventricular arrhythmias induced by programmed electrical stimulation in conscious postinfarction dogs.
        Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol. 1992; 346: 213-218
        • Kvarnstrom A
        • Karlsten R
        • Quiding H
        • et al.
        The effectiveness of intravenous ketamine and lidocaine on peripheral neuropathic pain.
        Acta Anaesthesiolol Scand. 2003; 47: 868-877
        • Lemo N
        • Vnuk D
        • Radisic B
        • et al.
        Determination of the toxic dose of lidocaine in dogs and its corresponding serum concentration.
        Vet Rec. 2007; 160: 374-375
        • McMillan CJ
        • Livingston A
        • Clark C
        • et al.
        Pharmacokinetics of intravenous tramadol in dogs.
        Can J Vet Res. 2008; 72: 325-331
        • Malone E
        • Ensink J
        • Turner T
        • et al.
        Intravenous continuous infusion of lidocaine for treatment of equine ileus.
        Vet Surg. 2006; 35: 60-66
        • Millette VM
        • Steagall PV
        • Duke-Novakovski T
        • et al.
        Effects of meperidine or saline on thermal, mechanical and electrical nociceptive thresholds in cats.
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2008; 35: 543-547
        • Muir WW
        • Wiese AJ
        • March PA
        Effects of morphine, lidocaine, ketamine, and morphine-lidocaine-ketamine drug combination on minimum alveolar concentration in dogs anesthetized with isoflurane.
        Am J Vet Res. 2003; 64: 1155-1160
        • Navas de Solìs C
        • McKenzie III, HC
        Serum concentrations of lidocaine and its metabolites MEGX and GX during and after prolonged intravenous infusion of lidocaine in horses after colic surgery.
        J Equine Vet Sci. 2007; 27: 398-404
        • Ngo LY
        • Tam YK
        • Tawfik S
        • et al.
        Effects of intravenous infusion of lidocaine on its pharmacokinetics in conscious instrumented dogs.
        J Pharm Sciences. 1997; 86: 944-952
        • Nunes de Moraes A
        • Dyson DH
        • O’Grady MR
        • et al.
        Plasma concentrations and cardiovascular influence of lidocaine infusions during isoflurane anesthesia in healthy dogs and dogs with subaortic stenosis.
        Vet Surg. 1998; 27: 486-497
        • Pascoe PJ
        • Reakallio M
        • Kuusela E
        • et al.
        Changes in the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane and some cardiopulmonary measurements during three different infusion rates of dexmedetomidine in dogs.
        J Vet Anaes Analg. 2006; 33: 97-103
        • Porro CA
        • Carli G
        Immobilization and restraint effects on pain reaction in animals.
        Pain. 1988; 32: 289-307
        • Pypendop BH
        • Ilkiw JE
        • Robertson SA
        Effects of intravenous administration of lidocaine on the thermal threshold in cats.
        Am J Vet Res. 2006; 67: 16-20
        • Quandt J
        • Lee JA
        Analgesia and constant rate infusions.
        in: Silverstein DC Hopper K Small Animal Critical Care Medicine. Saunders Elselvier, St Louis, MO, USA2008: 710
        • Schuster MR
        • Paris PM
        • Kaplan RM
        • et al.
        Effect on the seizure threshold in dogs of tocainide/lidocaine administration.
        Ann Emerg Med. 1987; 16: 749-751
        • Skarda RT
        • Tranquilli WJ
        Local anesthetics.
        in: Tranquilli WJ Thurmon JC Grimm KA Lumb and Jones’ Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. 4th edn. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA, USA2007: 395
        • Smith LJ
        • Shih A
        • Miletic G
        • et al.
        Continual systemic infusion of lidocaine provides analgesia in an animal model of neuropathic pain.
        Pain. 2002; 97: 267-273
        • Smith LJ
        • Bentley E
        • Shih A
        • et al.
        Systemic lidocaine infusion as an analgesic for intraocular surgery in dogs: a pilot study.
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2004; 31: 53-63
        • Valverde A
        • Doherty TJ
        • Hernandez J
        • et al.
        Effect of lidocaine on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in dogs.
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2004; 31: 264-271
        • Wallace MS
        • Dyck JB
        • Rossi SS
        • et al.
        Computer controlled lidocaine infusion for the evaluation of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury.
        Pain. 1996; 66: 69-77
        • Wilcke JR
        • Davis LE
        • Neff-Davis CA
        • et al.
        Determination of lidocaine concentrations producing therapeutic and toxic effects in dogs.
        J Vet Pharmacol Therap. 1983; 6: 105-112
        • Wilcke JR
        • Davis LE
        • Neff-Davis CA
        Pharmacokinetics of lidocaine and its active metabolites in dogs.
        J Vet Pharmacol Therap. 1983; 6: 49-58
        • Wilson DV
        • Branes KS
        • Hauptman JG
        Pharmacokinetics of combined intraperitoneal and incisional lidocaine in the dog following ovariohysterectomy.
        J Vet Pharmacol Therap. 2004; 27: 105-109
        • Wilson J
        • Doherty TJ
        • Egger CM
        • et al.
        Effects of intravenous lidocaine, ketamine and their combination on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane in dogs.
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2008; 35: 289-296