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A comparison of subarachnoid buprenorphine or xylazine as an adjunct to lidocaine for analgesia in goats

  • Francesco Staffieri
    Correspondence
    Francesco Staffieri, Università di Bari, D.E.T.O., Sezione di Chirurgia Veterinaria, Strada Provinciale per Casamassima Km 3, 70010 Valenzano (Bari), Italy
    Affiliations
    Dipartimento dell’Emergenza e dei Trapianti di Organi (D.E.T.O.), Sezione di Chirurgia Veterinaria, Facoltà di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Bari Valenzano (Bari), Italy

    Department of Clinical Studies, New Bolton Center, University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kennett Square, PA, USA
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  • Bernd Driessen
    Affiliations
    Department of Clinical Studies, New Bolton Center, University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kennett Square, PA, USA

    Department of Anesthesiology, University of California-Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA
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  • Luca Lacitignola
    Affiliations
    Dipartimento dell’ Scienze Cliniche Veterinarie, Sezione di Chirurgia Veterinaria, Facoltà di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Teramo, Teramo, Italy
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  • Antonio Crovace
    Affiliations
    Dipartimento dell’Emergenza e dei Trapianti di Organi (D.E.T.O.), Sezione di Chirurgia Veterinaria, Facoltà di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Bari Valenzano (Bari), Italy
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      Objective

      To test the hypothesis that subarachnoid administration of buprenorphine and lidocaine provides more intense and longer lasting perioperative analgesia with less side effects than xylazine and lidocaine in goats.

      Study design

      Randomized, blinded, controlled study.
      Study animals Ten healthy female goats randomly assigned to two groups of five animals each.

      Methods

      After sedation with acepromazine (0.1 mg kg−1) intravenously (IV), lidocaine 2% (0.1 mL kg−1) combined with either xylazine (0.05 mg kg−1; Group X) or buprenorphine (0.005 mg kg−1; Group B) were injected intrathecally at the lumbo-sacral junction prior to stifle surgery. Electrocardiogram, heart rate, direct systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures, rectal temperature and arterial blood gases were recorded as were post-operative sedation and pain scores using a visual analogue and numeric rating scale, respectively. Data were analyzed with one-way anova for repeated measures, one-way anova, Friedman's and Kruskal–Wallis tests as necessary (p< 0.05).

      Results

      Surgery was successfully performed under both analgesia protocols. Total pain and sedation scores were significantly lower in the B as compared with X group from 3–24 hours and 30–120 minutes, respectively after subarachnoid drug administration (SDA). Heart rate and arterial blood pressures decreased post SDA and were consistently lower in X versus B (p< 0.05). In B arterial blood gas parameters did not change post SDA, but in group X PaCO2 increased slightly within 15 minutes of SDA and remained elevated for at least 3 hours (p< 0.05).

      Conclusion

      In these goats intrathecal administration of buprenorphine and lidocaine produced more profound and longer lasting analgesia with less sedation and hemodynamic and respiratory impairment than xylazine with lidocaine.

      Clinical relevance

      In these goats undergoing hind limb surgery, subarachnoid buprenorphine/lidocaine offered more intense and longer lasting analgesia than a xylazine/lidocaine combination, with less sedation and impairment of cardiopulmonary function.
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