Research Paper| Volume 36, ISSUE 4, P352-360, July 2009

Download started.


Sedative and analgesic effects of romifidine in camels (Camelus dromedarius)



      To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and the sedative and analgesic effects of intravenous (IV) romifidine in camels.

      Study design

      Randomized prospective study.


      Eighteen healthy adult Dromedary camels.


      Romifidine was administered IV to camels (n = 6) at three different doses (40, 80 or 120 μg kg−1). Time of onset, degree and duration of sedation and analgesia were recorded immediately after drug administration. Heart rate, respiratory rate, ruminal contractions, muscle relaxation, response to auditory and tactile stimulation, distance between ears, distance from lower lip to the ground, and degree of ataxia were also recorded pre-administration and at 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 180 minutes post-administration. Plasma glucose, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were measured.


      Romifidine produced dose dependent sedation and analgesia. Significant decreases in heart rate (p < 0.001), ruminal contractions (p < 0.05), distance from lower lip to the ground (p < 0.001), response to auditory and tactile stimuli (p < 0.01), and significant increases in the degree of ataxia (p < 0.01), distance between the ear tips (p < 0.001) and blood glucose (p < 0.01) concentration were recorded after administration of romifidine until recovery. However, no significant changes in rectal temperature and respiratory rate were recorded.

      Conclusions and clinical relevance

      Intravenous administration of romifidine at three different doses appeared to be an effective sedative and analgesic agent for camels. Bradycardia, ruminal atony, and hyperglycemia were the most important adverse effects after IV administration of romifidine. The IV administration of romifidine at a dose rate of 120 μg kg−1 caused profound sedation and analgesia. Romifidine could be used for chemical restraint for a variety of diagnostic and minor surgical procedures in camels.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Aithal HP
        • Amarpal KP
        • Pawde AM
        • et al.
        Analgesic and cardiopulmonary effects of intrathecally administered romifidine or romifidine and ketamine in goats (Capra hircus).
        J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2001; 72: 84-91
        • Ali BH
        A survey of some drugs commonly used in the camel.
        Vet Res Commun. 1988; 12: 67-75
        • Ali BH
        • El-Sanhouri AA
        • Musa BE
        Some clinical, hematological and biochemical effects of four tranquilizers in camels (Camelus dromedarius).
        Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop. 1989; 42: 13-17
        • Ansah OB
        • Raekallio M
        • Vainio O
        Comparison of three doses of dexmedetomidine with medetomidine in cats following intramuscular administration.
        J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 1998; 21: 380-387
        • Bolbol AE
        • Hassanein A
        • Ibrahim H
        Some studies in the camel after sedation with Rompun.
        Vet Med Rev. 1980; 1: 5-60
        • Brunson DB
        • Collier MA
        • Scott EA
        • et al.
        Dental dolorimetry for the evaluation of an analgesic agent in the horse.
        Am J Vet Res. 1987; 48: 1082-1086
        • Celly CS
        • McDonell WN
        • Young SS
        • et al.
        The comparative hypoxaemic effect of four alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists (xylazine, romifidine, detomidine and medetomidine) in sheep.
        J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 1997; 20: 464-471
        • Custer R
        • Kramer L
        • Kennedy S
        Hematologic effects of xylazine when used for restraint of Bactrian camels.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1977; 171: 899-901
        • Denning HK
        The use of Rompun in the dromedary in diagnostic splenectomy (infection with trypansoma evansi/surra).
        Vet Med Rev. 1972; 3/4: 239-242
        • El-Maghraby HM
        • Al-Qudah K
        Sedative and analgesic effects of detomidine in camels (Camelus dromedarius).
        J Camel Pract Res. 2005; 12: 41-45
        • England GC
        • Clarke KW
        Alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists in the horse – a review.
        Br Vet J. 1996; 52: 651-657
        • England GC
        • Clarke KW
        • Goossens L
        A comparison of the sedative effects of three alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists (romifidine, detomidine and xylazine) in the horse.
        J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 1992; 15: 194-201
        • England GC
        • Andrews F
        • Hammond RA
        Romifidine as a premedicant to propofol induction and infusion anaesthesia in the dog.
        J Small Anim Pract. 1996; 37: 79-83
        • Fahmy LS
        • Farag KA
        • Mostafa MB
        • et al.
        Propofol anesthesia with xylazine and diazepam premedication in camels.
        J Camel Pract Res. 1995; 2: 111-113
        • Fierheller EE
        • Caulkett NA
        • Bailey JV
        A romifidine and morphine combination for epidural analgesia of the flank in cattle.
        Can Vet J. 2004; 45: 917-923
        • Fouad KA
        Camel surgery and anesthesia.
        Egypt J Vet Sci. 2000; 34: 1-10
        • Freeman SL
        • England GC
        Comparison of sedative effects of romifidine following intravenous, intramuscular, and sublingual administration to horses.
        Am J Vet Res. 1999; 60: 954-959
        • Gasthuys F
        • Martens A
        • Goossens L
        • et al.
        Quantitative and qualitative study of the diuretic effects of romifidine in the horse.
        J Vet Anest. 1996; 23: 6-10
        • Hall LW
        • Clark KW
        • Trim CM
        Veterinary anesthesia. 10th edn. W. B. Saunders, London2001: 83-91
        • Jöchle W
        • Hamm D
        Sedation and analgesia with Domosedan in horses: dose response studies on efficacy and duration.
        Acta Vet Scand. 1986; 82: 68-84
        • Kerr CL
        • McDonell WN
        • Young SS
        A comparison of romifidine and xylazine when used with diazepam/ketamine for short duration anesthesia in the horse.
        Can Vet J. 1996; 37: 601-609
        • Khamis Y
        • Fouad K
        • Sayed A
        Comparative studies on tranquilization and sedation in Camelus dromedarius.
        Vet Med Rev. 1973; 4: 336-345
        • Kinjavdekar AP
        • Aithal HP
        • Pawde AM
        • et al.
        Analgesic, sedative and haemodynamic effects of spinally administered romifidine in female goats.
        J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2002; 49: 3-8
        • Kinjavdekar P
        • Aithal HP
        • Amarpal S
        • et al.
        Potential effect of romifidine with lidocaine administration in goats.
        Small Rumin Res. 2006; 64: 293-304
        • Lemke KA
        Sedative effects of intramuscular administration of a low dose of romifidine in dogs.
        Am J Vet Res. 1999; 60: 162-168
        • Van Miert AS
        • Faghihi SM
        • Van Duin CT
        Food intake and rumen motility in dwarf goats. Effects of atipamezole on the inhibitory effects induced by detomidine, medetomidine and romifidine.
        Vet Res Commun. 1994; 18: 457-469
        • Nazifi S
        • Maleki K
        Biochemical analysis of serum and cerebrospinal fluid in clinically normal adult camel (Camelus dromedarius).
        Res Vet Sci. 1998; 65: 83-84
        • Penshin PK
        • Nigam JM
        • Singh SC
        • et al.
        Evaluation of xylazine in camels.
        J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1980; 177: 875-878
        • Penshin PK
        • Singh AP
        • Singh J
        Acid-base and blood gas changes following xylazine administration in buffalo and camel.
        Indian J Anim Sci. 1986; 56: 198-202
        • Prado ME
        • Streeter RN
        • Mandsager RE
        • et al.
        Pharmacologic effects of epidural versus intramuscular administration of detomidine in cattle.
        Am J Vet Res. 1999; 60: 1242-1247
        • Rossetti RB
        • Gaido Cortopassi SR
        • Intelizano T
        • et al.
        Comparison of ketamine and S(+)-ketamine, with romifidine and diazepam, for total intravenous anesthesia in horses.
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2008; 35: 30-37
        • Selmi AL
        • Barbudo-Selmi GR
        • Mendes GM
        • et al.
        Sedative, analgesic and cardiorespiratory effects of romifidine in cats.
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2004; 31: 195-206
        • Tefera M
        Observations on the clinical examination of the camel (Camelus dromedarius) in the field.
        Trop Anim Health Prod. 2004; 36: 435-449
        • White RJ
        • Bark H
        • Ball S
        Halothane anaesthesia in dromedary camel.
        Vet Rec. 1986; 119: 615-617
        • White RJ
        • Ball S
        • Bark H
        Xylazine and ketamine anaesthesia in the dromedary camel under field conditions.
        Vet Rec. 1987; 120: 110-113