Caudal epidural anti-nociception using lidocaine, bupivacaine or their combination in cows undergoing reproductive procedures



      To evaluate the anti-nociceptive effects of lidocaine, lidocaine-bupivacaine combination or bupivacaine following caudal epidural administration in cows undergoing reproductive procedures.

      Study design

      Blinded, randomized experimental study.


      Thirty seven healthy Holstein cows (mean weight ± SD, 633 ± 41 kg).


      Animals were allocated randomly to receive one of four treatments: group LID, 0.2 mg kg−1 lidocaine 2%; group LID-BUP, lidocaine-bupivacaine mixture in a 1:1 volume ratio (0.1 mg kg−1 and 0.025 mg kg−1, respectively); group BUP-LD, 0.05 mg kg−1 bupivacaine 0.5%; and group BUP-HD, 0.06 mg kg−1 bupivacaine 0.5%. The onset and duration of perineal anti-nociception were determined using superficial and deep pin pricks and the number of cows with complete perineal anti-nociception was recorded. Parameters were compared using anova followed by Duncan's test where relevant.


      Mean ± SD time to onset of anti-nociception following epidural administration of BUP-LD was significantly longer than for LID-BUP (p < 0.05). The duration (in minutes) of perineal anti-nociception was significantly longer following epidural administration of BUP-HD (247 ± 31) versus LID-BUP (181 ± 33) and LID (127 ± 25) minutes respectively. The % of cows with complete anti-nociception was increased in the group treated with BUP-HD compared to BUP-LD. Severe ataxia or recumbency did not occur in any groups.

      Conclusions and clinical relevance

      Epidurally administered bupivacaine, at a dose of 0.06 mg kg−1, may provide satisfactory caudal epidural anti-nociception for longer-duration obstetric and surgical procedures.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Cruz ML
        • Luna SPL
        • Clark RMO
        • et al.
        Epidural anaesthesia using lignocaine, bupivacaine or a mixture of lignocaine and bupivacaine in dogs.
        J Vet Anaesth. 1997; 24: 30-32
        • DeRossi R
        • Sampaio BFB
        • Varela JV
        • et al.
        Perineal analgesia and hemodynamic effects of the epidural administration of meperidine or hyperbaric bupivacaine in conscious horses.
        Can Vet J. 2004; 45: 42-47
        • DeRossi R
        • Miguel GLS
        • Frazilio FO
        • et al.
        L-Bupivacaine 0.5% vs. racemic 0.5% bupivacaine for caudal epidural analgesia in horses.
        J Vet Pharmacol Thera. 2005; 28: 293-297
        • DeRossi R
        • Verde-Selva AB
        • Bertoni RA
        • et al.
        Lignocaine versus bupivacaine for flank anaesthesia using multiport catheters via a caudal epidural approach in cattle.
        Aust Vet J. 2010; 88: 362-367
        • Duke T
        • Caulkett NA
        • Ball SD
        • et al.
        Comparative analgesic and cardiopulmonary effects of bupivacaine and ropivacaine in the epidural space of conscious dog.
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2000; 27: 13-21
        • Lee I
        • Yamagishi N
        • Oboshi K
        • et al.
        Distribution of new methylene blue injected into the caudal epidural space in cattle.
        Vet J. 2005; 169: 257-261
        • Singh V
        • Amarpal
        • Kinjavdekar P
        • et al.
        Effect of bupivacaine on epidural analgesia produced by xylazine or medetomidine in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2009; 36: 77-85
        • Skarda RT
        • Tranquilli WJ
        Local anesthetics.
        in: Tranquilli WJ Thurmon JC Grimm KA Lumb & Jones’ Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. 4th edn. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA, USA2007: 395-418
        • Skarda RT
        • Tranquilli WJ
        Local and regional anesthetic and analgesic techniques: Ruminant and swine.
        in: Tranquilli WJ Thurmon JC Grimm KA Lumb & Jones’ Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. 4th edn. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA, USA2007: 643-681