Advertisement

Intravenous infusion of amino acids in dogs attenuates hypothermia during anaesthesia and stimulates insulin secretion

      Abstract

      Objective

      To evaluate the effect of intravenous infusion of amino acids on the prevention of hypothermia during anaesthesia in dogs.

      Study design

      Randomized experimental trial.

      Animals

      Seven healthy Beagle dogs.

      Methods

      Four concentrations of amino acids were prepared with a 10% amino acid solution and an acetated Ringer’s solution, and dogs were infused with each of the solutions at 1 week intervals. Dogs were infused with amino acid solution at 12 mL kg−1 hour−1 for 60 minutes before and for 60 minutes after induction of anaesthesia. Acetated Ringer’s solution was infused at the same rate for the remaining 60 minutes of anaesthesia. The infusion treatments were: 1) A0, nutrient-free acetated Ringer’s solution; 2) A6, 0.6 g kg−1 hour−1; 3) A9, 0.9 g kg−1 hour−1; and 4) A12, 1.2 g kg−1 hour−1. Rectal temperature (RT), heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), blood insulin, glucose, urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine concentrations, and time to extubation were measured.

      Results

      Before anaesthesia, RT was not affected by amino acid infusion. RT decreased progressively during anaesthesia and the absolute values of RT from 30 to 120 minutes were significantly higher in A12 than in A0 (p<0.05). Reductions in HR and MAP during anaesthesia were attenuated by amino acid infusion in a dose-dependent manner. Plasma insulin concentration was significantly higher in A12 than in A0 during amino acid infusion and the increase in insulin concentration was greater during than before anaesthesia. BUN increased during amino acid infusion in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Time until extubation was shorter in A12 than in A0.

      Conclusions and clinical relevance

      Amino acids infused at 1.2 g kg−1 hour−1 in dogs attenuated the decrease in RT, HR, and MAP during anaesthesia, and induced a significant increase in plasma insulin concentration.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Alfonsi P
        • Nourredine KE
        • Adam F
        • et al.
        Effect of postoperative skin-surface warming on oxygen consumption and the shivering threshold.
        Anaesthesia. 2003; 58: 1228-1234
        • Antognini JF
        Hypothermia eliminates isoflurane requirements at 20 degrees C.
        Anesthesiology. 1993; 78: 1152-1156
        • Broadstone RV
        Prolonged anesthetic recovery.
        Clin Tech Small Anim Pract. 1999; 14: 56-60
        • Brundin T
        • Wahren J
        Influence of protein ingestion on human splanchnic and whole-body oxygen consumption, blood flow, and blood temperature.
        Metabolism. 1994; 43: 626-632
        • Brundin T
        • Wahren J
        Renal oxygen consumption, thermogenesis, and amino acid utilization during i.v. infusion of amino acids in man.
        Am J Physiol. 1994; 267: E648-E655
        • Clark-Price SC
        • Dossin O
        • Ngwenyama TR
        • et al.
        The effect of a pre-anesthetic infusion of amino acids on body temperature, venous blood pH, glucose, creatinine, and lactate of healthy dogs during anesthesia.
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2015; 42: 299-303
        • Cullen PM
        • Turtle M
        • Prys-Roberts C
        • et al.
        Effect of propofol anesthesia on baroreflex activity in humans.
        Anesth Analg. 1987; 66: 1115-1120
        • Donatelli F
        • Schricker T
        • Parrella P
        • et al.
        Intraoperative infusion of amino acids induces anabolism independent of the type of anesthesia.
        Anesth Analg. 2006; 103: 1549-1556
        • Ebert TJ
        • Muzi M
        • Berens R
        • et al.
        Sympathetic responses to induction of anesthesia in humans with propofol or etomidate.
        Anesthesiology. 1992; 76: 725-733
        • Freeman LJ
        • Huse D
        • Lee R
        • et al.
        Teaching veterinary anesthesia and surgery: the impact of instructor availability on anesthesia, operative, and recovery times in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy or castration.
        J Vet Med Educ. 2014; 41: 390-399
        • Garlick PJ
        • Grant I
        Amino acid infusion increases the sensitivity of muscle protein synthesis in vivo to insulin. Effect of branched-chain amino acids.
        Biochem J. 1988; 254: 579-584
        • Garlick PJ
        • Fern M
        • Preedy VR
        The effect of insulin infusion and food intake on muscle protein synthesis in postabsorptive rats.
        Biochem J. 1983; 210: 669-676
        • Hayashida Y
        • Kido Y
        • Tsujinaka T
        • et al.
        Increased energy expenditure after intravenous administration of amino acids.
        J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1992; 16: 142-148
        • Ilkiw JE
        • Pascoe PJ
        • Haskins SC
        • et al.
        Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of propofol administration in hypovolemic dogs.
        Am J Vet Res. 1992; 53: 2323-2327
        • Jefferson LS
        Lilly Lecture 1979: Role of insulin in the regulation of protein synthesis.
        Diabetes. 1980; 29: 487-496
        • Jin L
        • Ge S
        • Wang H
        • et al.
        Metabolic effects of intraoperative amino acid infusion in mongrel dogs.
        Ann Nutr Metab. 2012; 61: 117-125
        • Kaneko JJ
        Thyroid function.
        in: Kaneko JJ Harvey JW Bruss ML Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. 5th edn. Academic Press, USA1997: 571-588
        • Kanosue K
        • Crawshaw LI
        • Nagashima K
        • et al.
        Concepts to utilize in describing thermoregulation and neurophysiological evidence for how the system works.
        Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010; 109: 5-11
        • Kennedy KC
        • Tamburello KR
        • Hardie RJ
        Peri-operative morbidity associated with ovariohysterectomy performed as part of a third-year veterinary surgical training program.
        J Vet Med Educ. 2011; 38: 408-413
        • Kurz A
        • Sessler DI
        • Lenhardt R
        Perioperative normothermia to reduce the incidence of surgical-wound infection and shorten hospitalization. Study of Wound Infection and Temperature Group.
        N Engl J Med. 1996; 334: 1209-1215
        • Moriyama T
        • Tsuneyoshi I
        • Omae T
        • et al.
        The effect of amino-acid infusion during off-pump coronary arterial bypass surgery on thermogenic and hormonal regulation.
        J Anesth. 2008; 22: 354-360
        • Muntzel MS
        • Malena H
        • Drüeke T
        Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis attenuates insulin-mediated sympathetic activation in rats.
        J Hypertens. 2001; 19: 1625-1631
        • Muraro L
        • White RS
        Complications of ovariohysterectomy procedures performed in 1880 dogs.
        Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere. 2014; 42: 297-302
        • Nolan AM
        • Reid J
        • Grant S
        The effects of halothane and nitrous oxide on the pharmacokinetics of propofol in dogs.
        J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 1993; 16: 335-342
        • Pottie RG
        • Dart CM
        • Perkins NR
        • et al.
        Effect of hypothermia on recovery from general anaesthesia in the dog.
        Aust Vet J. 2007; 85: 158-162
        • Redondo JI
        • Suesta P
        • Gil L
        • et al.
        Retrospective study of the prevalence of postanaesthetic hypothermia in cats.
        Vet Rec. 2012; 170: 206
        • Ruffato M
        • Novello L
        • Clark L
        What is the definition of intraoperative hypotension in dogs? Results from a survey of diplomates of the ACVAA and ECVAA.
        Vet Anaesth Analg. 2015; 42: 55-64
        • Schmied H
        • Kurz A
        • Sessler DI
        • et al.
        Mild hypothermia increases blood loss and transfusion requirements during total hip arthroplasty.
        Lancet. 1996; 347: 289-292
        • Selldén E
        • Brundin T
        • Wahren J
        Augmented thermic effect of amino acids under general anaesthesia: a mechanism useful for prevention of anaesthesia-induced hypothermia.
        Clin Sci (Lond). 1994; 86: 611-618
        • Selldén E
        • Bränström R
        • Brundin T
        Preoperative infusion of amino acids prevents postoperative hypothermia.
        Br J Anaesth. 1996; 76: 227-234
        • Sessler DI
        Mild perioperative hypothermia.
        N Engl J Med. 1997; 336: 1730-1737
        • Steffey EP
        • Mama KR
        Inhalation anesthetics.
        in: Tranquilli WJ Thurmon JC Grimm KA Lumb and Jones’ Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. 4th edn. Blackwell Publishing, USA2007: 355-394
        • Tsujinaka T
        • Sakaue M
        • Iijima S
        • et al.
        Modulation of thermogenic response to parenteral amino acid infusion in surgical stress.
        Nutrition. 1996; 12: 36-39
        • Yamaoka I
        • Doi M
        • Nakayama M
        • et al.
        Intravenous administration of amino acids during anesthesia stimulates muscle protein synthesis and heat accumulation in the body.
        Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006; 290: E882-E888
        • Yamaoka I
        • Doi M
        • Kawano Y
        • et al.
        Insulin mediates the linkage acceleration of muscle protein synthesis, thermogenesis, and heat storage by amino acids.
        Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009; 386: 252-256