Research Paper| Volume 43, ISSUE 2, P145-152, March 2016

Comparison of the effects of propofol and emulsified isoflurane alone or combined with dexmedetomidine on induction of anesthesia in dogs



      To compare the respective effects of propofol and emulsified isoflurane administered alone and in combination with dexmedetomidine on the quality of induction of anesthesia, physiological variables and recovery in dogs.

      Study design

      Prospective, randomized, experimental trial.


      Thirty-six adult mixed-breed dogs.


      Animals were randomly assigned to one of four induction protocols: propofol alone (group P); emulsified isoflurane alone (group EI); both propofol and dexmedetomidine (group PD), or both emulsified isoflurane and dexmedetomidine (group EID). Pulse rate (PR), respiratory rate (fR), non-invasive arterial blood pressure and arterial blood gases were measured at baseline, before induction, immediately after intubation (time 0), and at 5 minute intervals until the dog began to swallow and the trachea was extubated. The quality of induction and recovery, and degree of ataxia were scored by a single investigator unaware of group assignment. The durations of anesthesia and recovery, and the incidence of adverse events were recorded.


      There were no clinically significant differences among the groups in induction quality. Systolic arterial pressure was lower in EID compared with P at 5 minutes. PR and fR were lower in PD and EID compared with P after induction. The PaCO2 at 5 minutes was higher than at baseline in group P. Ataxia score was lower in EID than in P. Time from induction to extubation and time from extubation to sternal recumbency were lower in EID compared with PD.

      Conclusions and clinical relevance

      There were no clinically significant differences among the groups in induction quality. In PD and EID, but not in P, PR and fR were decreased after induction. The EID combination resulted in smooth and rapid induction and recovery and thus may be useful clinically for induction of anesthesia.


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